1 . Jane Goodall was born in Bournemouth, England, on April 3, 1934. As a child, she had a natural love for the outdoors and animals. When Jane was about eight she read the Tarzan and Dr. Dolittle series and, in love with Africa, dreamed of traveling to work with the animals.
Finally, at age 23, she left for Nairobi, Kenya. There, Jane met famed Dr. Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, who offered her a job at the local natural history museum. She worked there for a time before Leakey decided to send her to the Gombe Stream Game Reserve in Tanzania to study wild chimpanzees. He felt her strong interest in animals and nature, and her knowledge as well as high energy made her a great candidate to study the chimpanzees.
In December 1958, Jane returned home to England and Leakey began to make arrangements for the expedition (考察), securing the appropriate permissions from the government and raising funds. In May 1960, Jane learned that Leakey had gained funding from the Wilkie BrothersFoundation.
Jane arrived by boat at the Gombe Stream Game Reserve on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika with her mother. The early weeks at Gombe were challenging. Jane developed a fever that delayed the start of her work. Finally, an older chimpanzee named David Greybeard, began to allow Jane to watch him. As a high ranking male of the chimpanzee community, his acceptance meant other group members also allowed Jane to observe. It was David Greybeard whom Jane first witnessed using tools. Excited, she telegraphed Dr. Leakey about her observation. He wrote back, “Now we must redefine ‘tool,’ and ‘man,’ or accept chimpanzees as humans.”
Jane continued to work in the field and, with Leakey’s help, began her doctoral program without an undergraduate degree in 1962. At Cambridge University, she found herself at oddswith senior scientists over the methods she used — how she had named the chimpanzees rather than using the more common numbering system, and for suggesting that the chimps have emotions and personalities. She further upset those in power at the university when she wrote her first book, My Friends, the Wild Chimpanzees, aimed at the general public rather than an academic audience. The book was wildly popular, and her academic peers were outraged. Dr. Jane Goodall earned her Ph.D. on February 9, 1966, and continued to work at Gombe for the next twenty years.
【小题1】It can be inferred from the passage that ______ .
|A．Jane was the first to discover chimpanzees use tools|
|B．a journey to Kenya rooted Jane’s deep love for animals|
|C．Dr. Leakey easily raised funds from the Wilkie Brothers Foundation|
|D．Jane’s work at the Gombe Stream Game Reserve went along smoothly|
【小题2】What is the academic peers’ attitude towards Jane’s first book?
|A．Extremely puzzled.||B．Genuinely pleased.|
|C．Really angry.||D．Truly sensitive.|
【小题3】What does the underlined sentence imply in paragraph 5?
|A．Jane’s study of chimpanzees received no support from scientists.|
|B．Jane’s method inspired more scientists to make further discoveries.|
|C．Jane’s achievements quickly attracted attention from senior scientists.|
|D．Senior scientists disagreed with Jane’s method in observing chimpanzees.|
【小题4】What message is mainly conveyed in the passage?
|A．Passion and hard work can make a difference in scientific research.|
|B．Cooperation is the key to making significant discoveries.|
|C．Challenging senior scientists is a must in gaining fame.|
|D．High energy counts in achieving great success.|
2 . Thirty-two cases of illegal hunting or trading wild animals have been uncovered involving 33 suspects since a crackdown against illegal wildlife trade was launched on April 10.
Beijing police seized 74 wild animals grouped in China into the first-grade and second-grade state protected animals, including African grey parrots and cockatoos, as well as nearly 50 wild birds and 21 pangolin scales.
On April 16, police in the capital city’s Chaoyang district caught two suspects, who were respectively identified as Liu and Wang, for buying wild animals, and recovered more than 40 wild birds, including one cockatoo and one African grey parrot, at their homes, the statement said, adding the two suspects have been detained (拘留).
In another case, a 35-year-old man surnamed Hu was also sentenced to imprisonment in Daxing district after he was found selling wild animals through QQ, a popular instant messaging tool in the country. He was caught on April 14.
The bureau highlighted the importance of protecting the wildlife, noting Chinese laws and a new decision adopted by the nation’s top legislature (立法机关) have also shown the country’s determination against illegal trade of wild animals.
The Chinese Criminal Law clarifies that those illegally hunting, buying, selling or transporting wild animals on the state protection list, endangered animals or the wildlife-related products will face an imprisonment of more than 10 years and fines if their behaviors are identified as “extremely serious”.
On Feb 24, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the country’s top legislative body, also passed the decision that clearly states all wildlife on the protection list of the existing Wild Animal Protect Law or other laws, and all wild animals, including those artificially bred and farmed, are not permitted to be hunted or traded.
With the strict crackdown campaign against illegal trade of wild animals on the go in Beijing, the whole nation is attaching great importance to wild life protection.
【小题1】The author mentions the cases at the very beginning of the passage to ______ .
|A．explain the new laws on wildlife protection|
|B．show the present situation of wildlife extinction|
|C．highlight the problem of illegal trade of wild animals|
|D．introduce Beijing’s campaign against illegal wildlife trade|
【小题2】What can we learn from the first three paragraphs?
|A．The number of wild animals is decreasing sharply.|
|B．Hunting and trading wildlife has become a nationwide concern.|
|C．Effective actions have been taken to prevent wildlife from illegal trade.|
|D．The strong action to stop trading illegal wild animals has a long way to go.|
【小题3】According to the Chinese Criminal Law, ______ .
|A．serious actions of trading wild animals will face fierce punishment|
|B．people risk heavy fines but no imprisonment for trade of wildlife|
|C．the trade of wildlife-related products will receive no punishment|
|D．those who hunt illegally may face 10 years of imprisonment|
【小题4】Which best describes the author’s tone in the passage?
3 . An international team of scientists has discovered a stellar black hole in Earth’s “cosmic backyard” containing the mass of 70 suns.
It’s a black hole that forms after stars die, collapse, and explode. Researchers had long believed that the size limit was only 20 times the mass of our sun because as these stars die, they lose most of their mass through explosions that force matter and gas swept away by stellar winds.
This theory has now been toppled by LB-1, the newly discovered black hole. Located about 15,000 light years away, it has a mass 70 times greater than our sun, according to a press release from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
“Black holes of such mass should not even exist in our galaxy (星系), according to most of the present models of stellar evolution,” said Liu Jifeng, head of the team that made the discovery.
“LB-1 is twice as massive as what we thought possible. Now theorists will have to take up the challenge of explaining its formation.”
Scientists are now scratching their heads at how LB-1 got so huge.
The team has proposed some theories. LB-1’s sheer size suggests that it “was not formed from the collapse of only one star,” the study said — instead, it could potentially be two smaller black holes orbiting each other.
Another possibility is that it formed from “fallback supernova (超行星).” This is when a supernova — the last stage of an exploding star — ejects (喷射) material during the explosion, which then falls back into the supernova, creating a black hole. This fallback formation is theoretically possible, but scientists have never been able to prove or observe it.
There are several types of black holes and stellar black holes like LB-1 are on the smaller side, according to NASA. Supermassive black holes are much bigger — they can be billions of times the mass of our sun.
Scientists believe supermassive black holes may have connection with the formation of galaxies, as they often exist at the center of the mass star stems but it is still not clear exactly how, or which form first.
【小题1】According to scientists, what might account for the formation of LB-1?
|A．The material ejected in the explosion of a supernova.|
|B．The smaller black holes moving around each other.|
|C．The evolution of the solar system.|
|D．The collapse of a certain star.|
【小题2】What does the word “toppled” in paragraph 3 probably mean?
【小题3】What is the purpose of writing this article?
|A．To inform readers of the basic knowledge about black holes.|
|B．To share the recent development of the black hole discovery.|
|C．To show the importance of discovering black holes for science.|
|D．To report achievements scientists have made in black hole theory.|
【小题4】What might be the best title for the passage?
|A．The Latest Discovery of Galaxies|
|B．Proposed Theories of Black Holes|
|C．The Possible Formation of the Black Holes|
|D．Biggest Stellar-mass Black Hole Discovered|